The petroleum industry has available only a small number of types of configurations for drilling/production platforms in deep water. In each case, the required foundation can consist of dead weight, a suction caisson, ship-type anchors, piles, or a combination of these. This paper deals with the use of piles to sustain these deep-water structures. The piles may be installed by driving with an underwater hammer or installed by drilling and grouting. The aims of the paper are: (1) to present a succinct treatment of piles for deep-water structures, and (2) to employ that information in suggesting specific research that is needed.