State of the Art in the Modeling of Cracks in Elastomeric Bearings
In this report, we evaluate numerical algorithms for the solution of elastomeric components subjected to compressive loads, using Finite Element techniques. The results show that existing techniques are not very reliable. The algorithms are very sensitive to small changes in boundary conditions.
The results show that major sources of difficulties are found when using a near incompressible material model confined between steel layers, specifically when the specimens are subjected to high compressive loading. The contact algorithms often do not converge when subjected to high compressive loading. The contact algorithms often do not converge when boundaries conditions are slightly modified, or when axial deformations reach moderately high levels. An extra degree of difficulty is found when attempting to solve 3D problems.
Given the obtained results, we think that a renewed effort to develop new algorithms is needed. The effort should be directed towards the development of iterative techniques for the solution of the underlying nonlinear equations, the development of new finite elements and the development of new contact formulations.